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  • Washington Irving’s Sunnyside in Tarrytown, New York

    Accompanying a plan of Sunnyside (unprinted here), a former residence of Washington Irving in New York, is the following text.We have left out its title, which indicates clearly its purpose, in the hope that the reader will reconstruct it after reading the text.

    Sunnyside is one of the few surviving and best-documented examples of American romanticism in architecture and landscape design.Andrew Jackson Downing featured Sunnyside in his Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1841) as an example of the "progressive improvement in Rural Architecture..." which, he explained, strives to be in "perfect keeping" with "surrounding nature" by its "varied" and "picturesque" outline.'Architectural beauty," he taught, "must be considered conjointly with the beauty of the landscape,"

    Walking the 24-acre grounds is a pleasure in every season.Swans glide on the pond Irving called "the little Mediterranean", and a stone flume delights the ear with the sound of rushing water.A path leads up a small rise and from there down into "the glen," and up to the house.Behind the house, another path winds along the Hudson for views of the river at its widest point, the Tappan Zee.

    The modest stone cottage which was later to become Sunnyside was originally a tenant farmer's house built in the late-seventeenth century on the Philipsburg Manor.During the eighteenth century, the cottage was owned by a branch of the Van Tassel family, the name Irving later immortalized in "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow".

    Irving purchased the cottage in 1835 and directed the remodeling, adding Dutch-stepped gables, ancient weathervanes, and developing Gothic and Romanesque architectural features for other parts of the house.He was so pleased with his home that in 1836 he wrote to his brother, Peter: "I am living most cozily and delightfully in this dear, bright little home, which I have fitted up to my own humor.Everything goes on cheerily in my little household and I would not exchange the cottage for any chateau in Christendom."

    Today's visitor to Sunnyside sees Irving's home much as it appeared during the final years of his life.The author's booklined study contains his writing desk—a gift from his publisher, G.P.Putnam and many personal possessions.The dining room, in which Irving and his dinner guests often gathered to enjoy the beautiful sunsets over the Hudson River, adjoins the parlor.Here Irving played his flute, while his nieces, Sarah and Catherine, accompanied him on the rosewood piano.The piano and other original furnishings still grace the room.The small picture gallery off the parlor contains some original illustrations for Irving's work.The kitchen was quite advanced for its day, having a hot water boiler and running water fed from the pond through a gravity-blow system.The iron cookstove was also a "modern convenience," replacing the open hearth in the 1850's.

    The second floor of the house contains several bedrooms, each of which has its own personal character.The guest bedroom is furnished with a French-style. bed and painted cottage pieces.The ingenious arches in this and other rooms were designed by Irving.His bedroom, where he died in 1859, contains the author's tester Sheraton bed, along with his walking stick and a number of his garments and personal effects.The small, bright room between the bedrooms might have been used by Irving's nephew and biographer, Pierre Munro Irving, who cared for his uncle during the last months of his life.The room was used originally to store books and papers.The bedroom used by Irving's nieces contains an Irving-family field bed with hand-made bobbin lace hangings, a chest of drawers, sewing stands, and an ornamental stove.The guest room contains a cast iron bed probably made in one of the foundries along the Hudson.

    Write True (T) or False (F)for the following questions.

    1.Sunnyside is the former residence of Washington Irving in Washington D.C.()

    2.Sunny side is a typical representative of Romanticism of American city architecture.()

    3.According to Andrew Jackson Downing , architectural beauty must be in harmony with the beauty of the surrounding landscape.()

    4.During the 18th century ,the cottage was owned by Van Tassel who was mentioned by Irving in his book “the Legend of the Hollow” .()

    5.Irving didn’t make any change to the cottage after he purchased it.()

    6.Today’s Sunnyside has changed a lot compared with its appearance in Irving’s time.()

    7.Sunnyside was built near the Hudson River.()

    8.The study , the dining room , the parlor and the kitchen are all on the first floor of Irving’s house.()

    9.All the bedrooms on the second floor are almost furnished in the same style.()

    10.Washington Irving was cared for by his daughter during the last period of his life.()

  • Exchange a glance with someone, and then look away. Do you realize that you have made a statement? Hold the glance for a second longer and you have made a different statement. Hold it for 3 seconds, and the meaning has changed again. For every social situation, there is a permissible time that you can hold a person’s stare without being friendly, rude, or aggressive. If you are on a lift, what stare-time are you permitted? To answer this question, consider what you typically do. You very likely give other passengers a quick glance to size them up and to assure them that you mean no harm. Since being close to another person signals the possibility of interaction, you need to send out a signal telling others you want to be left alone. So you cut off eye contacts. That is what sociologist Erving Goffiman calls “a dimming of the lights”. You look down at the floor, at the indicator lights, anywhere but into another passenger’s eyes. Should you break the rule against staring at a stranger on a lift, you will make the other person extremely uncomfortable, and you are likely to feel a bit strange yourself.

    If you hold eye contacts for more than 3 seconds, what are you telling another person? Much depends on the person and the situation. For instance, a man and a woman communicate interest in this manner. They stare at each other for about 3 seconds at a time, and then drop their eyes down for 3 seconds, before letting their eyes meet again. But if one man gives another man a 3-second-plus stare, he signals, “I know you”, “I am interested in you” or “You look peculiar and I am curious about you.” This type of stare often produces hostile feelings.

    60. It can be inferred from the first paragraph that ______.

    A. every glance has its significance

    B. a glance carries more meaning than words

    C. a stare longer than 3 seconds is unacceptable

    D. staring at a person is an expression of interest

    61. If you want to be left alone on a lift the best thing to do is ______.

    A. to look into another passenger’s eyes

    B. to keep a distance from other passengers

    C. to avoid eye contacts with other passengers

    D. to signal you don’t mean to do harm to anyone

    62. By “a dimming of the lights”, Erving Goffiman means ______.

    A. closing one’s eyes         B. turning off the lights

    C. stopping glancing at others     D. reducing stare-time to the minimum

    63. The passage mainly discusses ______.

    A. the limitations of eye contacts

    B. the exchange of ideas through eye contacts

    C. proper behavior in different situations in people’s daily life

    D. the role of eye contacts in communication between people

  • The picnics, speeches, and parades of today’s Labor Day were all part of the first celebration, held in New York City in 1882.Its promoter was an Irish-American labor leader named Peter J. McGuire.A carpenter by trade, McGuire had worked since the age of eleven, and in 1882 was president of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners (UBCJ).Approaching the City’s Central Labor Union that summer, he proposed a holiday that would applaud “the industrial spirit – the great vital force of every nation”.On September 5 his suggestion born fruit, as an estimated 10,000 workers, many of them ignoring their bosses’ warnings, left work to march from Union Square up Fifth Avenue to 42nd Street.The event gained national attention, and by 1893 thirty states had made Labor Day an annual holiday.

    The quick adoption of the scheme may have indicated less about the state lawmakers’ respect for working people than about a fear of risking their anger.In the 1880s the United States was a land sharply divided between the immensely wealthy and the very poor.Henry George was accurate in describing the era as one of “progress and poverty.” In a society in which factory, owners rode in private Pullmans while ten-year-olds slaved in the mines, strong anti-capitalist feelings ran high.Demands for fundamental change were common throughout the labor press.With socialist demanding an end to “wage slavery” and anarchists singing the praises of the virtues dynamite, middle-of-the-roaders like Samuel Gompers and McGuire seemed attractively mild by comparison.One can imagine practical capitalists seeing Labor Day as a bargain: A one-day party certainly cost them less than paying their workers decent wages.

    6.Judging from the passage, McGuire was ().

    A.a moderate labor leader

    B.an extreme anarchist in the labor movement

    C.a devoted socialist fighting against exploitation of man by man

    D.a firm anti-capitalist demanding the elimination of wage slavery

    7.We can see from the first paragraph that the first Labor Day march ().

    A.immediately won nationwide support

    B.involved workers from 30 states

    C.was opposed by many factory owners

    D.was organized by the UBCJ

    8.Which of the following is the key factor in the immediate approval of Labor Day as a national holiday?()

    A.The lawmakers’ respect for the workers

    B.The workers’ determination to have a holiday of their own

    C.The socialists’ demands for thorough reform

    D.The politicians’ fear of the workers’ anger

    9.We learn from the passage that the establishment of Labor Day ().

    A.was accepted by most bosses as a compromise

    B.marked a turning point in the workers’ struggle for more rights

    C.indicated the improvement of the workers’ welfare

    D.signaled the end of “wage slavery”

    10.McGuire proposed Labor Day in order to ().

    A.draw people’s attention to the striking contrast between the rich and the poor

    B.make prominent the important role of the working class in society

    C.win for the workers the right to shorter working hours

    D.expose the exploitation of the workers by their bosses

  • Gardening is a moral occupation, as well, because you always start in spring resolved to keep it looking neat this year, just like the pictures in the catalogues. But by July, you once again face the chaos of unthinned carrots, lettuce and beets.

  • Isn't that beautiful? Had I not learned how to be loving, I would have thought nice things about the chef's pork chops, but probably wouldn't have told him—just as I had failed to tell Liani how much she had helped me that first day in class.

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