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写作Suppose a foreign friend of yours is coming to visit China, what is the first place you would like to take him/her to see and why?

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Global warming is a trend toward warmer conditions around the world. Part of the warmi

Global warming is a trend toward warmer conditions around the world. Part of the warming is natural; we have experienced a 20,000-year-long warming as the last ice age ended and the ice 36 away. However, we have already reached temperatures that are in 37 with other minimum-ice periods, so continued warming is likely not natural. We are 38 to a predicted worldwide increase in temperatures 39 between 1℃ and 6℃ over the next 100 years. The warming will be more 40 in some areas, less in others, and some places may even cool off. Likewise, the 41 of this warming will be very different depending on where you are-coastal areas must worry about rising sea levels, while Siberia and northern Canada may become more habitable (益居的) and 42 for humans than these areas are now.

The fact remains, however, that it will likely get warmer, on 43 , everywhere. Scientists are in general agreement that the warmer conditions we have been experiencing are at least in part the result of a human-induced global warming trend. Some scientists 44 that the changes we are seeing fall within the range of random (无规律的) variation—some years are cold, others warm, and we have just had an unremarkable string of warm years 45 but that is becoming an increasingly rare interpretation in the face of continued and increasing warm conditions.

A) appealing

B) average

C) contributing

D) dramatic

E) frequently

F) impact

G) line

H) maintain

I) melted

J) persist

K) ranging

L) recently

M) resolved

N) sensible

O) shock

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Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attac

Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

The End of the Book?

[A] Amazon, by far the largest bookseller in the country, reported on May 19 that it is now selling more books in its electronic Kindle format than in the old paper-and-ink format. That is remarkable, considering that the Kindle has only been around for four years. E-books now account for 14 percent of all book sales in this country and are increasing far faster than overall book sales. E-book sales are up 146 percent over last year, while hardback sales increased 6 percent and paperbacks decreased 8 percent.

[B] Does this spell the doom of the physical book? Certainly not immediately, and perhaps not at all. What it does mean is that the book business will go through a transformation in the next decade or so more profound than any it has seen since Gutenberg introduced printing from moveable type in the 1450s.

[C] Physical books will surely become much rarer in the marketplace. Mass market paperbacks, which have been declining for years anyway, will probably disappear, as will hardbacks for mysteries, thrillers, “romance fiction”, etc. Such books, which only rarely end up in permanent collections, either private or public, will probably only be available as e-books within a few years. Hardback and trade paperbacks for “serious” nonfiction and fiction will surely last longer. Perhaps it will become the mark of an author to reckon with that he or she is still published in hard copy.

[D] As for children’s books, who knows? Children’s books are like dog food in that the purchasers are not the consumers, so the market (and the marketing) is inherently strange.

[E] For clues to the book’s future, let’s look at some examples of technological change and see what happened to the old technology.

[F] One technology replaces another only because the new technology is better, cheaper, or both. The greater the difference, the sooner and more thoroughly the new technology replaces the old. Printing with moveable type on paper dramatically reduced the cost of producing a book compared with the old-fashioned ones handwritten on vellum, which comes from sheepskin. A Bible—to be sure, a long book—required vellum made from 300 sheepskins and countless man-hours of labor. Before printing arrived, a Bible cost more than a middle-class house. There were perhaps 50,000 books in all of Europe in 1450. By 1500 there were 10 million.

[G] But while printing quickly caused the handwritten book to die out, handwriting lingered on (继续存在) well into the 16th century. Very special books are still occasionally produced on vellum, but they are one-of-a-kind show pieces.

[H] Sometimes a new technology doesn’t drive the old one out, but only parts of it while forcing the rest to evolve. The movies were widely predicted to drive live theater out of the marketplace, but they didn’t, because theater turned out to have qualities movies could not reproduce. Equally, TV was supposed to replace movies but, again, did not.

[I] Movies did, however, fatally impact some parts of live theater. And while TV didn’t kill movies, it did kill second-rate pictures, shorts, and cartoons.

[J] Nor did TV kill radio. Comedy and drama shows (“Jack Benny”, “Amos and Andy” “The Shadow”) all migrated to television. But because you can’t drive a car and watch television at the same time, rush hour became radio’s prime time, while music, talk, and news radio greatly enlarged their audiences. Radio is today a very different business than in the late 1940s and a much larger one.

[K] Sometimes old technology lingers for centuries because of its symbolic power. Mounted cavalry (骑兵) replaced the chariot (二轮战车) on the battlefield around 1000 BC. But chariots maintained their place in parades and triumphs right up until the end of the Roman Empire 1,500 years later. The sword hasn’t had a military function for a hundred years, but is still part of an officer’s full-dress uniform, precisely because a sword always symbolized “an officer and a gentleman”.

[L] Sometimes new technology is a little cranky (不稳定的) at first. Television repairman was a common occupation in the 1950s, for instance. And so the old technology remains as a backup. Steamships captured the North Atlantic passenger business from sail in the 1840s because of its much greater speed. But steamships didn’t lose their sails until the 1880s, because early marine engines had a nasty habit of breaking down. Until ships became large enough (and engines small enough) to mount two engines side by side, they needed to keep sails. (The high cost of steam and the lesser need for speed kept the majority of the world’s ocean freight moving by sail until the early years of the 20th century.)

[M] Then there is the fireplace. Central heating was present in upper-and-middle-class home by the second half of the 19th century. But functioning fireplaces remain to this day a powerful selling point in a house or apartment. I suspect the reason is a deep-rooted love of fire. Fire was one of the earliest major technological advances for humankind, providing heat, protection, and cooked food (which is much easier to eat and digest). Human control of fire goes back far enough (over a million years) that evolution could have produced a genetic leaning towards fire as a central aspect of human life.

[N] Books—especially books the average person could afford—haven’t been around long enough to produce evolutionary change in humans. But they have a powerful hold on many people nonetheless, a hold extending far beyond their literary content. At their best, they are works of art and there is a tactile (触觉的) pleasure in books necessarily lost in e-book versions. The ability to quickly thumb through pages is also lost. And a room with books in it induces, at least in some, a feeling not dissimilar to that of a fire in the fireplace on a cold winter’s night.

[O] For these reasons I think physical books will have a longer existence as a commercial product than some currently predict. Like swords, books have symbolic power. Like fireplaces, they induce a sense of comfort and warmth. And, perhaps, similar to sails, they make a useful backup for when the lights go out.

46. Authors still published in printed versions will be considered important ones.

47. Some people are still in favor of printed books because of the sense of touch they can provide.

48. The radio business has changed greatly and now attracts more listeners.

49. Contrary to many people’s prediction of its death, the film industry survived.

50. Remarkable changes have taken place in the book business.

51. Old technology sometimes continues to exist because of its reliability.

52. The increase of e-book sales will force the book business to make changes not seen for centuries.

53. A new technology is unlikely to take the place of an old one without a clear advantage.

54. Paperbacks of popular literature are more likely to be replaced by e-books.

55. A house with a fireplace has a stronger appeal to buyers.

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阅读理解The question of whether our government should promote science and technology o

阅读理解The question of whether our government should promote science and technology or the liberal arts in higher education isn’t an either/or proposition (命题), although the current emphasis on preparing young Americans for STEM (science, technology, engineering, maths) -related fields can make it seem that way.

The latest congressional report acknowledges the critical importance of technical training, but also asserts that the study of the humanities (人文科学) and social sciences must remain central components of America’s educational system at all levels. Both areas are critical to producing citizens who can participate effectively in our democratic society, become innovative (创新的) leaders, and benefit from the spiritual enrichment that the reflection on the great ideas of mankind over time provides.

Parents and students who have invested heavily in higher education worry about graduates’ job prospects as technological advances and changes in domestic and global markets transform. professions in ways that reduce wages and cut jobs. Under these circumstances, it’s natural to look for what may appear to be the most “practical” way out of the problem: “Major in a subject designed to get you a job” seems the obvious answer to some, though this ignores the fact that many disciplines in the humanities characterized as “soft” often, in fact, lead to employment and success in the long run. Indeed, according to surveys, employers have expressed a preference for students who have received a broadly-based education that has taught them to write well, think critically, research creatively, and communicate easily.

Moreover, students should be prepared not just for their first job, but for their 4th and 5th jobs, as there’s little reason to doubt that people entering the workforce today will be called upon to play many different roles over the course of their careers. The ones who will do the best in this new environment will be those whose educations have prepared them to be flexible. The ability to draw upon every available tool and insight—picked up from science, arts, and technology—to solve the problems of the future, and take advantage of the opportunities that present themselves, will be helpful to them and the United States.

56. What does the latest congressional report suggest?

A. STEM-related subjects help students find jobs in the information society.

B. The humanities and STEM subjects should be given equal importance.

C. The liberal arts in higher education help enrich students’ spiritual life.

D. Higher education should be adjusted to the practical needs of society.

57. What is the main concern of students when they choose a major?

A. Their interest in relevant subjects.

B. The academic value of the courses.

C. The quality of education to receive.

D. Their chances of getting a good job.

58. What does the author say about the so-called soft subjects?

A. They benefit students in their future life.

B. They broaden students’ range of interests.

C. They improve students’ communication skills.

D. They are essential to students’ healthy growth.

59. What kind of job applicants do employers look for?

A. Those who have a strong sense of responsibility.

B. Those who are good at solving practical problems.

C. Those who are likely to become innovative leaders.

D. Those who have received a well-rounded education.

60. What advice does the author give to college students?

A. Seize opportunities to tap their potential.

B. Try to take a variety of practical courses.

C. Prepare themselves for different job options.

D. Adopt a flexible approach to solving problems.

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阅读理解“Energy independence” and its rhetorical (修辞的) companion “energy security”

阅读理解“Energy independence” and its rhetorical (修辞的) companion “energy security” are, however, slippery concepts that are rarely thought through. What is it we want independence from, exactly?

Most people would probably say that they want to be independent from imported oil. But there are reasons that we buy all that off from elsewhere.

The first reason is that we need it to keep our economy running. Yes, there is a trickle (涓涓细流) of biofuel (生物燃料) available, and more may become available, but most biofueis cause economic waste and environmental destruction.

Second, Americans have basically decided that they don’t really want to produce all their own oil. They value the environmental quality they preserve, over their off imports from abroad. Vast areas of the United States are off-limits to off exploration and production in the name of environmental protection. To what extent are Americans really willing to endure the environmental impacts of domestic energy production in order to cut back imports?

Third, there are benefits to trade. It allows for economic efficiency, and when we buy things from places that have lower production costs than we do, we benefit. And although you don’t read about this much, the United States is also a large exporter of off products, selling about 2 million barrels of petroleum products per day to about 90 countries.

There is no question that the United States imports a great deal of energy and, in fact, relies on that steady flow to maintain its economy. When that flow is interrupted, we feel the pain in short supplies and higher prices. At the same time, we derive massive economic benefits when we buy the most affordable energy on the world market and when we engage in energy trade around the world.

61. What does the author say about energy independence for America?

A. It sounds very attractive.

B. It ensures national security.

C. It will bring oil prices down.

D. It has long been everyone’s dream.

62. What does the author think of biofuels?

A. They keep America’s economy running healthily.

B. They prove to be a good alternative to petroleum.

C. They do not provide a sustainable energy supply.

D. They cause serious damage to the environment.

63. Why does America rely heavily on off imports?

A. It wants to expand its storage of crude oil.

B. Its own oil reserves are quickly running out.

C. It wants to keep its own environment intact.

D. Its own oil production falls short of demand.

64. What does the author say about oil trade?

A. It proves profitable to both sides.

B. It improves economic efficiency.

C. It makes for economic prosperity.

D. It saves the cost of oil exploration.

65. What is the author’s purpose in writing the passage?

A. To justify America’s dependence on oil imports.

B. To arouse Americans’ awareness of the energy crisis.

C. To stress the importance of energy conservation.

D. To explain the increase of international oil trade.

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